Article 36 on parliamentary sovereignty is legally questionable. Mike Gordon, professor of constitutional law at the University of Liverpool, for example, said in an article with the UK Constitutional Law Association that “it is difficult to recognise that there are practical consequences of reducing the real legal status of the obligations arising from the withdrawal agreement in domestic law.” The use of the phrase “recognized” in the clause indicates, for example, that it is a political statement on the constitutional norms of the United Kingdom and not a new just rule. In 2017, the UK Supreme Court of R (Miller) /Secretary of State for Exiting the EU has considered the meaning of the phrase “it is recognised” in a legal provision. It concluded that the articulation of the Sewel Convention (in the Employment Act 2016) was merely intended to recognize an existing constitutional standard rather than to make its status a new legal standard. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political declaration and replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, a trade fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms.  In addition, the Equal Competition Mechanism has been postponed from the legally binding withdrawal agreement to the political declaration, and the line of the political statement that “the United Kingdom will consider taking into account alignment with trade union rules in the relevant areas” has been removed.  Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on October 17, 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP declared that they could not support the new agreement.  The only exception is for children born after withdrawal from the United Kingdom for whom a parent who is not covered by the withdrawal agreement has sole custody under applicable family law. The EU and the UK reach an interim agreement. It includes a transition period until 31 December 2020, during which all EU rules will continue to apply.
It also covers the border between Ireland and Northern Ireland. The withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the UK will remain in the internal market, to ensure the smooth flow of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded. If no agreement is reached by then, the UK will leave the single market without a trade deal on 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on future relations between the EU and the UK. According to the British in Europe lobby group (which represents British citizens residing in EU countries) in June 2020, “up to 23 EU Member States had still implemented systems to document the future rights of the 1.2 million British citizens already living on the continent who are unaware of their future rights and obligations.”  “The UK introduced its [registration] system for EU citizens last March , in which more than 3.3 million people were granted pre-regulated or regulated status after Brexit,” he said.  The European Union and the United Kingdom conclude a draft withdrawal agreement.