McHugh, M., Pell, A. (2013). Reform of the health care system in Australia. Melbourne: Berry Street. National standards were approved in 2011 and support an integrated response between the Commonwealth and state and territory governments to ensure that children in all Australian jurisdictions have the same quality of custody (Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs – National Framework Implementation Group [FaHCSIA – NFIWG], 2011). The AIHW collects data to report on each of the 13 standards. This data is gradually updated from different sources and can be accessed via dynamic ads on the AIHW website. The principle is that if it is not possible to find Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander guardians, children are placed as a last resort with a non-Aboriginal guardian, provided that the relationship between the child and his or her family, community and cultural identity can be maintained (Arney et al., 2015). Home care is a child care service in the child welfare system.
Home care in community institutions is provided to children and adolescents who cannot be placed under the guardianship of the home. Children and adolescents living in home care are often the ones who have experienced the greatest trauma and therefore need the most competent therapeutic care and support. Mendes, P., Johnson, G., Moslehuddin, B. (2011a). Effective preparation of young people for the transition of out-of-home care: A study of three recent Australian studies. Family Matters, 89, 61-70. As of June 30, 2017, the vast majority of children living in OOHC had been under guardianship for more than a year (AIHW, 2018b). Some of these children are prevented from complying with this principle due to barriers to implementation such as lack of Aboriginal caregivers, misidentification and assessment of caregivers, and deficiencies in care and cultural and community ties (Arney et al., 2015). Mendes, P., Johnson, G., Moslehuddin, B. (2011b). Young people leaving state administration: Australian politics and practice. North Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing.
In Australian countries, the proportion of children being cared for by parents or parents, other Aboriginal caregivers or in an Aboriginal home varied widely, from 32.3% of placements in the Northern Territory to 80.9% of placements in New South Wales (see Chart 1). In Australia, in 2016/17, 68% of Aboriginal children were housed by relatives or relatives, other family members or an indigenous home employment institution (AIHW, 2018a; 2018b). Private, informal or non-legal kinship care is a concept that can be used to describe the rules in which children are cared for by parents without child protection intervention.